Pharmaceutical formulation is mixing several chemical components with the active medication to create a finished medical product known as a drug combination or drug formulation.
A medication formulation may be administered to a patient in many forms, including solid, semisolid, and liquid. The formulation provided varies according to the patient’s age, gender, and health status and is tailored to various administration methods.
Here’s a quick rundown of the many types of drug formulation development:
- Tablets: A tablet is a disc-shaped product that uses appropriate equipment to compress the coarse powder. They are usually coated with inert ingredients like starch to aid disintegration in the patient’s digestive system. To make the tablets more edible, a binding agent, lubricant, and flavouring are added.
- Enteric-coated tablets are coated with a substance that disintegrates in the alkaline medium of the intestine rather than in the acidic media of the stomach. They cannot be chewed and must be taken by swallowing.
- Controlled Release Tablet – is designed to deliver the active component of the medication in a predetermined amount over a predetermined time. In this case, the quantity of drug delivered is progressive throughout the day and is not affected by the pH of the patient’s digestive system. As a result, a consistent quantity of medication is delivered at a consistent pace.
- Sustained-release preparations emit a constant quantity of medication over a long time. As a result, they enhance the patient’s adherence to therapy.
- Capsules may be either firm or soft. The medication is in a solid form in hard capsules, and it dissolves readily in water. The medication is in the liquid or semi-solid form in soft capsules, and it is insoluble in water but soluble in propylene or glycol.
They are more easily absorbed than solid formulations and may be given through a variety of methods, including:
Oral preparations: Oral preparations make it simpler for young people and the elderly to ingest and deliver medications. To make certain drinks more appealing, flavourings and sugar are added. They are available in solutions, suspensions, or emulsions and must be well shaken before use.
Topical Preparations: Topical application refers to applying medication to a specific body region for immediate therapy. It contains the following items:
- Drops for the eyes
- Ear drops
- Nasal drops
- Nebulizers and inhalers
- For skin application: creams and ointments
- Gels and lotions
- Pessaries for vaginal administration of the drug
It is helpful for medicines with a very low blood activity concentration. These medications are given as pills placed under the tongue or between the cheek and the gum and allowed to dissolve. In this way, the medication enters the circulation immediately, skipping the digestive system and acting more quickly.
- Suppositories are medicines that are given via the rectum. The medication is absorbed by the rectal mucosa and enters the circulation immediately. When a patient is unconscious, feels nausea, or has trouble swallowing, the technique is helpful.
- Enemas are liquid formulations intended for rectal administration. They may be used topically or systemically, as well as for bowel movements.
Parental Drug Administration – is medication administration that occurs outside of the patient’s GI system. With the assistance of injections, drugs may be placed anywhere.
- Intradermal administration: where the medication is injected into the dermis-Anaesthesia
- Subcutaneous injection: when the medication is injected beneath the skin or into the subcutaneous tissue, it is mostly used for medicines that cannot be administered orally, such as insulin.
- Intramuscular injection: where the medication is injected into the skeletal or muscular system because the system is extremely vascular, medicines with low molecular weight may readily pass through and enter the circulation through direct diffusion.
- An intravenous injection is administered straight into the vein, allowing the medication to take effect more quickly.
On the other hand, a formulation scientist performs pre-formulation studies to determine whether to create a medication as a solid, liquid, or semi-solid formulation. These studies help to establish the medicinal material’s physical, chemical, and mechanical qualities and highly its stability and interaction with other chemical components.